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General considerations Definitions Both terms in the title of this article are in need of elaboration. The use of the term literature in English to imply those writings that are susceptible to aesthetic analysis as opposed to everything that is written is of relatively recent vintage, and the development of a field of study devoted to it is yet more recent with the study in the West of non-Western literary traditions being even more so.
The sections that follow will be concerned only with literature that has been composed in Arabic; it thus excludes works written by Arabs in other languages.
The Arabic language The Arabic language in its earliest phases was relatively well protected from the forces of rapid change by the peninsular environment within which it developed. It is the best-preserved model of the Semitic languages. These features have since disappeared from sister languages, of which Hebrew is perhaps the most prominent.
That very reality makes it extremely difficult to pinpoint precise details regarding the earliest development of the Write arabic text online language and its literary tradition.
It is unclear, however, whether this apparently elevated language perhaps reserved for special occasions, such as poetry competitions was ever the means of spoken communication for any particular group.
Whatever may have been the linguistic environment of pre-Islamic Arabia, write arabic text online rapid spread of the faith across Africa and into Asia soon created a situation in which written and spoken Arabic inhabited opposite ends of a linguistic spectrum.
At the other end was the spoken language of Arabs, which from Spain known as Al-Andalus during the Moorish period and Morocco in the west to the Arabian Gulf and Iraq in the east displayed—and continues to display—enormous variety, hardly a surprising linguistic phenomenon in view of the great distances involved and the wide variety of cultures with which Islam came into contact.
Context The Arabic literary tradition began within the context of a tribal, nomadic culture.
With the advent and spread of Islam, that tradition was carried far and wide during the course of the 7th to the 10th century. Early contacts with the Sasanian empire of Persia present-day Iran led to a noisy but fruitful exchange of cultural values.
Al-Andalus became to the rest of Europe a model of a society in which the religions and cultures of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism could work together and create a system of scholarship and teaching that could transmit the heritage of older civilizations and the rich cultural admixture of Andalusian society.
Western science, mathematics, philosophy, musicand literature were all beneficiaries of this fascinating era, of whose final stages the fabulous Alhambra palace complex in Granada, Spain, remains the most visible token. By the 10th century, the political fragmentation of the larger Islamic community was evident in the existence of three separate caliphates: Ironically, this fragmentation worked to the advantage of literature and its practitioners; the existence of a continuing series of petty dynasties provided ample opportunity for patronage at court, which was the primary means of support for poets and scholars.
However, literary production and creativity were inevitably marked by the ongoing series of Crusadescarried out by Christians from western Europe, the Mongol invasions and later those of the Turkic conqueror Timur Tamerlanethe fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans inthe fall of Granada in the Reconquista inand the fall of Cairo to the Ottomans in It is certainly true that the 19th century witnessed a vigorous translation movement that introduced to the readership of Arabic literature examples of genres such as the novelthe short storyand the drama.
All these genres were subsequently produced within the literary milieu of Arabic, although the chronology and pace of that process varied widely in different regions. However, as Arab literary historians endeavoured to trace the development of a modern literary tradition in different regions and as creative writers themselves strove to find indigenous sources of inspiration and modes of expression, a perceived need to incorporate the second category mentioned above—that of the linkage between the classical heritage of the Arab past and the creativity of the present—became more pressing and led in many regions to a reexamination of the balance between these two forces.
At the turn of the 21st century, the Arab creative writer operated at a local level within a social environment that, more often than not, constrained freedom of expression and indeed subjected literature to strict forms of censorship.
Many prominent Arab authors spent large segments of their life in exile from their homelands for political reasons. More broadly, the confrontation between secularism and popular religious movements, which might in the best of circumstances provide for a fruitful interaction of opinions, instead—because of local, regional, and global factors—created an atmosphere of tension and repression that was often not conducive to creative thought.
This confrontation also prompted Arab litterateurs to view the global environment with considerable circumspection. Its message is conveyed in a language of great beauty, something that is regarded as an inimitable miracle. Its contents are the primary basis for the formulation of Islamic law and the designation of conduct by Muslims, both as individuals and as a community.
Revelation, compilation, and structure Recite in the name of your lord who created— From an embryo created the human.Write Arabic letters online without installing Arabic keyboard.
This online keyboard allows you to type Arabic letters using any computer keyboard, mouse, or touchscreen. touch and hold inside the text area to copy the text.
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Arabic English online translation. Arabic English dictionary, monolingual Arabic dictionary and other resources for the Arabic language.
Online keyboard to type a text with the Arabic characters. The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Sindhi, Pashto, Persian,Punjabi, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others. Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in benjaminpohle.comonally, Turkish, prior to the Turkish language reform, was written in Perso-Arabic script.
Arabic (Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة ) al-ʻarabiyyah [alʕaraˈbijːa] () or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ ) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] () or Arabic pronunciation:) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in.