Islam and footwear international

After decades of nationalistic indoctrination, most citizens self-identify as Turks regardless of ethnic background. Some of the major non-Turkish ethnic groups—the Kurds in the southeast, the Arabs in the south, the Laz of the western Black Sea coast, and the Georgians in the northeast and northwest—express double identities. Turkey occupies Asia Minor and a small portion of Europe.

Islam and footwear international

Etymology[ edit ] A 15th-century Persian depiction of Muhammad visiting hell during Mi'raj and seeing "shameless women" being punished for exposing their hair to strangers. Overview[ edit ] Pre-Islamic use of the face veil[ edit ] The face-veil was originally part of women's dress among certain classes in the Byzantine Empire and was adopted into Muslim culture during the Arab conquest of the Middle East.

In addition, the Greek geographer Strabowriting in the first century AD, Islam and footwear international to some Median women veiling their faces; [6] and the early third-century Christian writer Tertullian clearly refers in his treatise The Veiling of Virgins to some "pagan" women of "Arabia" wearing a veil that covers not only their head but also the entire face.

In the case of Tamar, the Biblical text, 'When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; because she had covered her face' indicates customary, if not sacral, use of the face veil to accentuate rather than disguise sexuality. These fall into three different general interpretations, one held by a majority and two held by a minority.

The first interpretation, the opinion of the overwhelming majority of Islamic scholars, states that the niqab is optional at most. Within this view, there is disagreement as to when the niqab becomes prohibited even for those who would choose to wear it at other times.

The second interpretation, the opinion of a small minority of Islamic scholars, states that the niqab is outright obligatory fard to wear at all times in the presence of non- mahram males. The third interpretation, also a small minority opinion, states that the niqab is outright prohibited and against Islam to wear at any time, in any company.

Moreover, even in some Hadith, it is clearly stated that the Prophet Muhammad himself taught women, in the example of his companion Abu Bakr 's daughter Asma' bint Abu Bakrthat they need not veil Islam and footwear international either their face or their hands: In deference to the minority legal opinion which rules niqab to be obligatory, most other Muslim scholars and Islamic schools of thought have ruled that the preference is not to prohibit niqab as bid'ah say'iah, but as 'urf to be discouraged.

There are, nevertheless, scholars who have issued fatwas decreeing niqab to be against Islam, including the Grand Mufti of Egypt. A renowned scholar and head of the Islamic world's preeminent religious institute, Tantawy has stated that "the niqab is a cultural tradition and has nothing to do with Islam.

Tantawy's decision stems from his views that younger Muslims have lost touch with traditional Islamic scholarship and have come under the influence of imams from the Salafi Wahhabi branch in Saudi Arabia. The niqabi niqab wearer is also prohibited from pressing the practice on others.

In this practice of mutual tolerance, the niqabi shall also not be criticized for her belief or tradition holding niqab to be obligatory, or for her good-faith error on the side of modesty.

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Sunni[ edit ] The opinions of the four traditional mainstream Sunni schools of jurisprudence are as follows: In the Maliki madhhabthe face and the hands of a woman are not awrah ; therefore covering the face is not obligatory. However, Maliki scholars have stated that it is highly recommended mustahabb for women to cover their faces.

The Hanafi school does not consider a woman's face to be awrah; however it is still obligatory wajib for a woman to cover her face. While the Hanafi school has not completely forbidden a male's gaze towards a female's face when there exists absolutely no fear of attraction, the woman has no way of knowing whether the gazes directed towards her are free of desire or not, especially when she is out in public.

The Hanafi school has thus obliged women to cover their faces in front of strangers. The Shafi'i school has had two well-known positions on this issue. The first view is that covering of the face is not obligatory fard.

According to the Hanbali school, there are two differing views on whether a woman's whole body is awrah or not. Hence, covering the face would not be obligatory fard in this madhhab. There is a dispensation though that allows a woman to expose her face and hands, e.

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His opponents within the Saudi establishment ensured that his contract with the university was allowed to lapse without renewal. For example, Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei was among the learned who, based upon the Quran and the hadith, believed that women should wear the niqab as per "obligatory precaution Ihtiyat wujubi.

It was known that the wives of the Prophet Muhammad covered themselves around non-mahram men. However the Quran explicitly states that the wives of the Prophet are held to a different standard.

It is also argued by some Muslims that the reasons for the niqab are to keep Muslim women from worrying about their appearances and to conceal their looks. In France specifically, although the niqab is not individually targeted, it falls within the scope of legislation which bans the wearing of any religious items Christian, Jewish, Muslim, or other in certain public areas.

Inthe French Parliament passed a law to regulate "the wearing of symbols indicating religious affiliation in public educational establishments". This act outlawed the wearing of clothing that covers one's face in any public space.

Sarkozy further explained that the French government sees these enactments as a way to successfully ease Muslims into French society and to promote gender equality. The two most common forms are the half niqab and the gulf-style or full niqab.

The half niqab is a simple length of fabric with elastic or ties and is worn around the face. This garment typically leaves the eyes and part of the forehead visible.1: lm dr. m.

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harunur rashid: head of bac: institution of the university of derby, united kingdom: view: 2: lm mrs. afroza khan: 2nd: director: monno. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Present-day Turkey was founded in as an offspring of the multiethnic and multilingual Ottoman Empire, which existed between the fourteenth and early twentieth centuries and embraced much of the Middle East along with parts of southeastern Europe and North Africa in the sixteenth century.

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Islam and footwear international

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