Contributors to this volume explore how Asian influences have been adapted to American desires in literary works and at Buddhist poetics, or how Buddhist practices emerge in literary works. Starting with early aesthetic theories of Ernest Fenollosa, made famous but also distorted by Ezra Pound, the book moves on to the countercultural voices associated with the Beat movement and its friends and heirs such as Ginsberg, Kerouac, Snyder, Giorno, Waldman, and Whalen. An interview with Kingston is included.
Median Temperature and Rate Constant. Order of Saponification Reaction It can be inferred based on the literature obtained from Dr. Raghdads results in his published paper in the Journal of Engineering that the order of reaction between olefin, otherwise known as the oleic acid triglyceride, and sodium hydroxide is 2 The discussion of his results revealed that the order with respect to olein and sodium hydroxide are both 1 respectively.
The results of his experiments that explain the order of the reaction will be used as the basis of calculating the rate constant for this investigation. The following equation will be used to calculate the rate constant, k.
Since it is an organic compound, the olive oil used is insoluble in water and dissolving it in different organic compounds might risk unwanted side reactions. The natural logarithm of the rate constant can then be plotted against the reciprocal of temperature in order to and the activation energy as well as the Arrhenius constant.
Development of Method The method is loosely based of Dr. Raghads procedure but uses a change in pH instead of several titrations in order to measure the rate of reaction Measuring Temperature The initial experimental setup used a magnetic heating stirrer to initially heat up the sodium hydroxide solution before adding the olive oil.
A mercury thermometer was then used in order to monitor the temperature of the mixture. However, this method of temperature control was deemed to be inaccurate due to the fact that the temperature of the mixture is very likely to actuate and increasing the volume of substances will cause the temperature to drop because more energy will be required to get a larger volume at a specific temperature.
This can be explained with the concept of specie heat capacity. Therefore, instead of using mercury thermometers to control the temperature, a Vernier temperature probe is used instead.
Using the Vernier temperature probe reduces the percentage uncertainty as the temperature can be measured even more precisely with a temperature probe instead of a mercury thermometer. Instead of using the initial temperature of the sodium hydroxide as a reading for the whole experiment, the temperature pro le of the whole reaction can be recorded.
The stabilised temperature can then be used as the reading for the Arrhenius equation.
Measuring Rate of Reaction This method of rate of reaction through change in pH was achieved through several experimental redesigns.
I initially thought that the rate of reaction could be calculated based on the time taken for phenolphthalein to change from colour-less to pink.
The intention behind the rest experimental design was to utilise the colour change of phenolphthalein that would turn colourless at high pH values, approximately but would become pink when moderately basic, However, the golden yellow colour of the olive oil makes it difficult to discern the change in colour and requires a high amount of qualitative observation.
Using a Vernier spectrophotometer would allow the observation to be more quantitative but the change in colour cannot be accurately attributed toward the rate of change in moles of reactants or products. After several redesigns using phenolphthalein, I then decided to use the Vernier pH probe instead to measure the change in concentration of hydroxide ions.
The pH probe will measure pH of the sodium hydroxide at the beginning of the experiment at approximately pH 14 and should show a gradual decrease in pH as the reaction progresses.
This method proved to be the best way to calculate the rate of reaction of this Saponification reaction.Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 32) Given an activation energy of 15 kcal/mol, use the Arrhenius equation to estimate how much faster the reaction will occur if the temperature is increased from °C to °C.
The linear relationship then allowed us to calculate an activation energy (E a for the reaction of kJ/mol, and a frequency factor (A) of x10 12 4x10 10 s Essay Nacl Affects on Enzymatic Reaction. Concentration Had on the Rate of Reaction of Catecholase Enzymes in a Potato (Solanum tuberosum).
Abstract Enzymes are a key component of a cell. They make chemical reactions happen faster because they lower the . Experiment 7 Determining the Rate Law and Activation Energy for the Reaction of Experiment 7.
Determining the Rate Law and Activation Energy for the Reaction of Crystal Violet with Hydroxide Ion.
Introduction. In this experiment, you will observe the reaction between crystal violet . • Activation energy (Ea) is the minimum energy that colliding molecules need in order to have successful collisions leading to a reaction.
• By decreasing Ea, a catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being permanently chemically changed. Now that Hurricane Florence has passed, our work is just beginning. Communities across North and South Carolina were severely affected by the storm, and the recovery process.