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High data rate capabilities, noise rejection and electrical isolation are just a few of the important characteristics that make fiber optic technology ideal for use in industrial and commercial systems. Conventional electrical data signals are converted into a modulated light beam, introduced into the fiber and transported via a very small diameter glass or plastic fiber to a receiver that converts the light back into electrical signals.
This occurs because of the difference in speeds that the light can travel through different materials.
Each material can be described in terms of its refractive index, which is the ratio of the speed of light in the material to its speed in free space. The relationship between these two refractive indices determines the critical angle of the interface between the two materials.
There are three actions that can happen when a ray of light hits an interface. Each action depends on the angle of incidence of the ray of light with the interface. If the angle of incidence is less than the critical angle, the light ray will refract, bending toward the material with the higher refractive index.
If the angle of incidence is exactly equal to the critical angle the ray of light will travel along the surface of the interface. If the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle, the ray of light will reflect.
The refractive index of vacuum is considered to be 1.
Often, we consider the refractive index of air also to be 1 although it is actually slightly higher. The refractive index of water is typically about 1. Glass has a refractive index in the range of 1. As shown in Figure 1, optical fiber is actually made up of three parts.
The center core is composed of very pure glass, with a refractive index of 1.
Core dimensions are usually in the range of 50 to um. The surrounding glass, called cladding, is a slightly less pure glass with a refractive index of 1.
The diameter of the core and cladding together is in the range of to um. Surrounding the cladding is a protective layer of flexible silicone called the sheath. When light is introduced into the end of an optical fiber, any ray of light that hits the end of the fiber at an angle greater than the critical angle will propagate through the fiber.
Each time it hits the interface between the core and the cladding it is reflected back into the fiber. The angle of acceptance for the fiber is determined by the critical angle of the interface.
If this angle is rotated, a cone is generated. Any light falling on the end of the fiber within this cone of acceptance will travel through the fiber.
Figure 1 illustrates how light rays travel through the fiber, reflecting off the interface. If the physical dimensions of the core are relatively large individual rays of light will enter at slightly different angles and will reflect at different angles.SEL provides complete power system protection, control, monitoring, automation, and integration for utilities and industries worldwide.
SEL products, systems, services, and training make electric power safer, more reliable, and more economical. What Are the Benefits of FOA Certification?
Like any certification programt, the benefits to those who pass the certification tests are based on the recognition of achieving a level of competence in the fiber .
Company Overview Fibernet develops, manufactures and markets an extensive range of Cyber, Multimedia, Communications and Fiber-optics solutions.
Established in , the company provide premium solutions to High-Tech, Telecom, Defense. Fiber-optic communications is based on the principle that light in a glass medium This tutorial provides an extensive overview of the history, construction, operation, and benefits of optical fiber, with particular The commitment to optical fiber technology has spanned more than 30 years and.
BOGOTA, Colombia, Feb. 6, /PRNewswire/ -- The global telecommunications and IT provider CenturyLink, Inc. (NYSE: CTL) today announced the launch of its new fiber optic route connecting Colombia and Ecuador, between the cities of Cali and Quito.
. The first transatlantic telephone cables went into service in , and 32 years later, the first fiber optic cable connected Europe and America.
Fiber optic technology made transmitting massive quantities of information fast and cost-effective.