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A loss of reflective self-consciousness A sense of personal control or agency over the situation or activity A distortion of temporal experience, one's subjective experience of time is altered Experience of the activity as intrinsically rewardingalso referred to as autotelic experience Those aspects can appear independently of each other, but only in combination do they constitute a so-called flow experience.
Artists, especially painters, got so immersed in their work that they would disregard their need for food, water and even sleep.
Researchers interested in optimal experiences and emphasizing positive experiences, especially in places such as schools and the business world, also began studying the theory of flow at this time.
The theory of flow was greatly used in the theories of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers in their development of the humanistic tradition of psychology.
The teachings of Buddhism and of Taoism speak of a state of mind known as the "action of inaction" or "doing without doing" wu wei in Taoism that greatly resembles the idea of flow.
Mechanism[ edit ] In any given moment, there is a great deal of information made available to each individual. Psychologists have found that one's mind can attend to only a certain amount of information at a time.
Just decoding speech takes about 60 bits of information per second. For the most part except for basic bodily feelings like hunger and pain, which are innatepeople are able to decide what they want to focus their attention on. However, when one is in the flow state, they are completely engrossed with the one task at hand and, without making the conscious decision to do so, lose awareness of all other things: This occurs because all of the attention of the person in the flow state is on the task at hand; there is no more attention to be allocated.
The FQ identifies flow as multiple constructs, therefore allowing the results to be used to estimate differences in the likelihood of experiencing flow across a variety of factors. Another strength of the FQ is that it does not assume that everyone's flow experiences are the same.
Because of this, the FQ is the ideal measure for estimating the prevalence of flow. However, the FQ has some weaknesses that more recent methods have set out to address. The FQ does not allow for measurement of the intensity of flow during specific activities. This method also does not measure the influence of the ratio of challenge to skill on the flow state.
The purpose of this is to understand subjective experiences by estimating the time intervals that individuals spend in specific states during everyday life. The ESF is made up of 13 categorical items and 29 scaled items.
The purpose of the categorical items is to determine the context and motivational aspects of the current actions these items include: Because these questions are open-ended, the answers need to be coded by researchers. This needs to be done carefully so as to avoid any biases in the statistical analysis.
The scaled items are intended to measure the levels of a variety of subjective feelings that the individual may be experiencing. The ESM is more complex than the FQ and contributes to the understanding of how flow plays out in a variety of situations, however the possible biases make it a risky choice.
Jackson and Eklund created two scales that have been proven to be psychometrically valid and reliable: The statistical analysis of the individual results from these scales gives a much more complete understanding of flow than the ESM and the FQ. One must be involved in an activity with a clear set of goals and progress.
This adds direction and structure to the task. This helps the person negotiate any changing demands and allows them to adjust their performance to maintain the flow state.
One must have confidence in one's ability to complete the task at hand. Thus, a perceived fit of skills and task demands can be identified as the central precondition of flow experiences.All the Feels: 10 Top Books on Psychology & Human Behavior Discover 10 fascinating psychology books that reveal the mysteries of the human brain & the secrets to a great memory and genuine confidence.
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