Women have been and continue to be integral to the institution of art, but despite being engaged with the art world in every way, many women artists have found opposition in the traditional narrative of art history. They have faced challenges due to gender biases, from finding difficulty in training to selling their work and gaining recognition.
Francis Davis We see them everywhere: They come in the mail and in our Sunday newspapers: And we see them on TV: They are so compelling that we cannot not watch them. They are so seductive that they have revolutionized human social communication. Oral and written communication are in decline because a new form of communication, communication by image, has emerged.
The History of Communication The history of human social interchange has evolved through three distinct phases: In oral cultures, learning and tradition were passed on by word of mouth, primarily through storytelling.
The invention of writing made it possible to preserve information and literary traditions beyond the capacity of memory, but the circulation of hand-written books was still limited to an elite few.
With the invention of the printing press, written texts were in effect transferred from the exclusive property of those wealthy enough to afford hand-copied manuscripts to a broad reading public.
Elizabeth Eisenstien, in The Printing Press As An Agent of Change, dramatizes this emergence by considering the case of inhabitants of Constantinople born inthe year that he Byzantine capital fell to the Turks.
People born in that pivotal year who lived to be 50 saw more books produced in their lifetimes-some eight million-than been written in the previous thousand years of Constantinople's existence.
The Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation and the rise of Western science are just a few of the revolutions spurred by the ability to mass-produced books and newspapers and the growing ability of common folk to read them.
A similar revolution began about years ago with the invention of photography. For the first time, visual representation of objects in space could be reproduced on a mass scale. Image communication was born. It only took about 50 years for this new method of representation to become a major player in the communication of social values in American society.
The rise of the advertising industry spurred this change, for advertisers quickly learned that the most effective way to sell products was not through stories or plain-text facts, but through the creation of images that appealed to basic human needs and emotions.
Television cemented the era of image communication. In one sense television has turned back the clock to the era of oral storytelling, for television tells stories and we watch and listen just like our ancestors who sat mesmerized around campfires.
But television's most important stories are those not verbalized-the stories and myths hidden in its constant flow of images. These images suggest myths-and thus help construct our world and values-in much the same way that stories did in oral culture.
Simply put, images are pictures. However, in our culture pictures have become tools used to elicit specific and planned emotional reactions in the people who see them. These pictures-these images-are created to give us pleasure-as when we watch The Cosby Show-or to make us anxious when we forget our deodorant or lipstick.
Images work best at this task when they are vivid and emotionally saturated. The American flag elicits more powerful emotions than an Idaho potato on a couch, for example. The potato might make us laugh, but the flag is full of multiple and often contradictory meanings and associations-everything from the story of how Francis Scott Key wrote the The Star-Spangled Banner to flag burning as a protest against the Vietnam War.
The flag works as an image because it suggests a long list of stories and myths that are buried inside us. Image makers hope that in the moment it takes to "consume" an ad or commercial frame, their carefully selected graphics-like the image of the flag-will evoke emotions and memories bubbling deep within us.
Pictures that evoke these deep memories can be very powerful-and also very spiritual. In calling up these deep emotions and memories, however, today's images have taken on new meanings and have created new myths that are shrouded-often deliberately-by these deeper memories.
These new myths lie at the heart of modern American culture, and illustrate the double-edged power of today's images. The New Myths Traditionally, a myth has been defined as a story or idea that explains the culture or customs of a people. Often myths describe heroes or explain why a people revere the sun, or why elders should be respected.
Myths are the motivating stories or ideas common cultural practices. This understanding of myth leaves little room for the common misperception that myths are simply false or superstitious ideas. Instead, myths are the ideas and stories that motivate daily behavior.
The key to recognizing the new myths of the image culture is to think of them as ideas that emerge from long exposure to patterns of images-not as myths that can be seen readily in one or two images.
In fact, these myths are unconvincing unless one thinks of them as emerging from a huge glut of images which come from many sources, including advertising, entertainment and news.
Another way to put this is to say that today's images must be read on two levels.The Media and Body Image. February 16, the power of media can harm the general population. As a result of these body images projected by the media, men and women have encountered.
unusual to find a woman in a bikini draped over a Mustang or a John Deere. Though sexually suggestive images of women often appear in ads for everyday, non-appearance-related products, these images dominate in personal care and cosmetic ads” (Renzetti, Curran, and Maier ).
personal facts and reputable sources, citing convincing facts and statistics, and and phrases that create a sympathetic image; Grose notes that she “was eight months Analysis explains how the quotes show the effective use of pathos, as noted in the thesis Analysis explains.
the beauty industry’s influence on women 5 increase attractiveness and to obtain accompanying social benefits,” and how they are related to assessments about attractiveness (Bloch & Richins, , p. 4). Illusionary Strength: An Analysis of Female Empowerment in Science Fiction and Horror Films in Fatal Attraction, the political and make it personal” (), so the privacy of one’s home became a political The lead female’s aggression toward patriarchal power creates an empowering image for women in society that thrusts aside.
The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women.